The question, "When should my child begin kindergarten?" was once a
simple one. You'd send your child to school when he was old enough to
Oh, for the good old days. It's been decades since parents -- on
blissful autopilot -- checked out the school eligibility date, packed
up the Lone Ranger lunch box and sent Johnny on his way.
Today, most parents take close, careful looks at their child before
signing him or her up for kindergarten at the age-appropriate time.
Some decide -- for a wide range of reasons -- that their 5-year-old is
not quite ready for school, and could benefit from spending another
year in preschool or at home.
Kids with summer birthdays -- close to state cut-off dates -- present
particular dilemmas: Will they be the youngest in the class? Will they
be less ready/mature/socialized or academically prepared than their
peers? Will they be smaller and less competitive in sports?
Parents seem particularly worried about their sons. "Boys often lag
behind girls in motor and language skills, and may have a hard time
sitting," says Jeanne Spurlock, a first-grade teacher at Sunset
Elementary School in the Issaquah School District. "Some of them begin
to feel like their self-esteem is being battered."
Although boys eventually catch up, some parents and educators feel
postponing kindergarten for a year enables boys to compete on a more
even playing field -- or even enjoy a bit of an edge.
What's more, kindergarten is not the romp in the sandbox it used to be,
a factor that's raised the parental anxiety level to new heights. A
push for more academics -- underscored by the government's No Child
Left Behind act and added standardized testing -- has translated into
revamped, upgraded kindergarten programs.
"What we teach in kindergarten is what we used to teach in first
grade," says Joyce Arnold, kindergarten teacher at Sunset Elementary.
"There's more curriculum now than ever; we often bemoan that we can't
do some of the fun things we used to do."
But keeping kids back -- experts call it "academic redshirting" -- also
has its downsides. According to a 1997 study published in Pediatrics,
the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the number of kids
-- ages 6 to 8 -- who were older than their same-grade peers doubled
from 11 percent in 1971 to 22 percent in 1990.
Call it the Aging of Kindergarten.
"Holding a child out of kindergarten to get the physical maturity
advantage has thrown everything off kilter, and resulted in there being
two or more years difference in ages in the same grade," says Carol
Robins, a Seattle area counselor and educational consultant. "As a
consequence, a disproportionate number of kids look a head taller than
others -- and behave in unexpected ways developmentally and socially."
The older kids, she says, often become leaders or bullies, and the younger ones end up being left out -- or becoming followers.
Robins' observations are backed up by the Pediatrics study, which
points to potential problems in later grades for kids who are older
than their peers.
"Simply being older than others in one's class...is associated with
increased rates of behavior problems, most noticeably among
adolescents," writes researcher Robert S. Byrd. "Old-for-grade
adolescents have been shown in previous studies to have higher rates of
risky behaviors, including drug use."
So how do parents make that thorny send-them-or-hold-them decision?
Consider your own child's readiness level, Robins advises. "Each child
and family differ, as do the economic and cultural contexts in which
children grow up," she says. She suggests parents interview preschool
teachers, friends and educational consultants to gather a more
objective assessment of their child.
Investigate programs appropriate to your child's needs and learning
style, Robins says. "A good match will necessitate less concern
regarding chronological age." What kinds of expectations do you have of
your child? What are you looking for in a school?
Make sure your child fits in with his peers, Spurlock says. "If you
notice the child has a low ability to problem solve in a social sense,
or if he is fitting in better with a younger group, take another look."
In addition, pay attention to your child's willingness to share and
ability to sit still, Spurlock advises. Both are more important than
academic prowess. "There's a huge range in academic skills," she notes.
"Some kids don't recognize letters by kindergarten; others might read
at a fifth-grade level."
If a parent suspects a child has a learning disability, get him into
the classroom, Spurlock says. "Those problems won't go away -- and
school is where the student can get help."
Most important, notes Carolee Walters, who teaches at Seattle's Emerson
Elementary, evaluate your child's emotional and social readiness. "A
lot of it boils down to maturity," she says.
Linda Morgan writes frequently on education issues for ParentMap.
Originally published in the November, 2004 print edition of ParentMap.